By; Palwasha Azam
What Feminism is ?
• Feminism is a collection of political movements, social movements and ideologies that defend the political, the economic, the personal and the social rights of women.
• Feminist movements aim at achieving and establishing equality between women and men.
• Feminists act, speak, write and advocate on behalf of women's issues and rights and identify injustice to females in the social status quo.
What Feminism is Not?
• Feminism is not the belief that women are superior
• Feminism is not hating men (misandry)
• Feminism is not male oppression
Waves of Feminism
• The history of the feminist movements is divided into three "waves".
• The first wave refers to the movement of the 19th through early 20th centuries, which dealt mainly with suffrage, working conditions and educational rights for women and girls.
• The second wave (1960-1980) dealt with the inequality of laws, as well as cultural inequalities and the role of women in society.
• The third wave of feminism (1990-2000) is seen as both a continuation of the second wave and a response to the perceived failures.
First Wave of Feminism
First-wave feminism involved a period of feminist activity during the 19th and early 20th centuries, especially in Europe and in the United States.
• Women’s suffrage (the right to vote)
• The right to education
• Better working conditions
• Marriage and property laws
• Reproductive rights
Second-wave feminism is a period of feminist activity and thought that first began in the early 60s in USA and spread all over the western world and beyond.
• Raising consciousness about sexism and patriarchy
• Raising consciousness about gender based violence, domestic abuse and marital rape
• Inequalities in the workplace
• legalizing abortion and birth control
• Sexual liberation of women
The third wave of feminism (1990-2000) arose partially as a response to the perceived failures of second-wave feminism
• The diversity of "women" is recognized and emphasis is placed on identity, gender, race, nation, social order and sexual preference
• Changes on stereotypes, media portrayals and language used to define women.
• Sexual identities